Monday, March 24, 2014

Maritsa Centeno, Yakisa Sur Indigenous Community in Matagalpa

Maritsa Centeno
Maritsa is from the Yakisa Sur community of Matagalpa.  Her son, 2 years old, wasn’t feeling well, so he and his father stayed home.
We must recognize the other (Pacific side) indigenous of Nicaragua.  History:  RAAN/RAAS were not colonized by the Spanish, but rather by the British.  This permitted the indigenous to not lose their languages because the Brits didn’t make them abandon their language, culture, or religion.  The rest of Nicaragua at the time of independence of Central America, established Spanish as the language and forbid our religious ceremonies.  The Catholic church persecuted women who performed our traditional ceremonies.  State policies and laws were passed to deprive the indigenous of their lands.  The government said after independence that 50% of indigenous land must be administered by the government because they needed to rent the land to investors and use the money to educate the indigenous.   But one year later, the government declared that the outsiders could buy the land.  That’s why many indigenous today don’t have land, especially in Matagalpa. 
Our great-grandfathers lived well before colonizers came – we became Mestizos – they don’t have to recognize us as original owners of the land.
After 1970, all of the original people of the Pacific, Central and Northern zones have re-organized themselves in the original way.  They all now have Councils of Elders and mayors who carry a baton, chiefs, and judges.  The government recognized those officials and structure, but they don’t recognize their right to the land.  The government is maintaining strict control over those indigenous structures.  They financially support candidates who support the government.  This prevents local leadership from carrying out actions in favor of the indigenous.
As proof, for example, there was a bill proposed for indigenous rights in the North, Central, and South parts of Nicaragua but those bills never become law.
In May 2010 Nicaragua approved the UN Covenant on Indigenous Peoples, but did it strictly for image – not for carrying it out.
In Matagalpa, the indigenous have the largest section of land, it’s in the humid area – there are big land owners there who are important I the government. 
Susan – my husband owns for “use and enjoyment” a title, and pays rent to the indigenous community.  Maritsa said that the bigger “owners” pay their taxes to the central government who don’t recognize our ownership – the big “owners” support the government and pay taxes.
There are some cooperatives and some state-owned farms as well.  Some are also from way back like Matagalpa Coffee Company, and there are some German, Italian, and Swiss owners.
They took half of our land and gave it to big land owners whose descendents still own the land.  Most of the farm workers are indigenous.  They gat about 80Cd per day, or about $3.
Some big farmers rent land to iindigenous farmers, who pay back 2100 weights of corn, (2000 lb) which is 1/5 of their crop, and 500 weights of beans.  This is a terrible exploitation of indigenous on their own land.
I’ve been filing claims at the local level against this exploitation and they say I’m a right-winger.  It makes my claims for rights very difficult because the close the doors on me.  I have training in standard international human rights and rights of indigenous at Leon at the National Autonomous University.  I have been working for ten years in the North, Central, and South zones on indigenous rights.  I studied the problems of these regions, and they are systematic. I also studied other areas.  For example, in Salinas, southwest of Lake Nicaragua, in the Department of Rivas, people are buying beach areas.  In Salinas del Aguadapa, the head of the indigenous group sole some of their land without permission of the Council of Elders.  When the Council of Elders went to the authorities, they got no response from the judicial system – the government supports the investors over the indigenous.
In the center of Motene, in the Urvite Las Pilas community, a man appeared with a land title from a woman who had never been there – it was for 1600 Mz along the lake.  The local authorities honored it.  This is for a tourism project.  We learned that behind him was a high ranking army officer.  We weren’t able to prove our accusation in court in Rivas, but the indigenous are appealing to the court in Grenada – they don’t want to let this person grab their land. 
In Rivas Nawas where the indigenous live, there are 3 – 5 more indigenous communities.  In Matagalpa, the indigenous people live in Sam Ramon, San Dioncia, and three other towns.  All of the people in San Ramon and San Dionicia are entirely on indigenous land.  In Leon, just the Suptiaba people have their own territory – they administer a small piece of land, but it is their original territory.
Our Matagalpa language died in 1994.  Last year the government was going to try to recover our language, but it did not come forward.
In the 1870s people used slave indigenous labor to build cathedrals and other structures.  In 1881, the indigenous of Matagalpa rose up because they were forced to build cathedrals and a telegraph line – the government reacted with massacre and held the city at siege.  They killed 5 – 8,000 Matagalpa people.
In the war against William Walker, in San Jacinto, the indigenous fought with bows and arrows, but  were not recognized for their role until two years ago – they had been put in a common grave. 
One success – inMoninpo in Masaya, in the district of Orchega, Indians had lost their land, and just had their houses – but they just got back their cemetery. 
In Jinotega, they have fought for twenty years regarding the property that was lost to the Lake Apanas dam.  They have a virgin that has her land.
Since 2007, the Matagalpa have been trying to recover our spiritual heritage – I am the coordinator for that in all of these areas.  There are two ceremonial circles in Matabalpa and one in Jinoteca.  We are working to re-establish in a more formal manner.
Last Friday, our community was visited by a United Nations representative of Nicaragua denouncing the abuse of women in agriculture in our community.
Charley talked about the Abenaki 30 year legal battle with the state of Vermont.  We have 68 acres set aside for us in trust but not in our name.  We’re trying to reclaim our heritage and culture, and looking for a ceremonial place to start ceremonies again.  We have the same history of racism as indigenous everywhere.
Question – can you file claims under laws 92 and 445?  No, those are only on the Caribbean side.  Charley – the UN specifies rights and the Interamerican court may be able to help.  Maritsa – that takes a lot of money and lawyers.  Jinoteca has started this process but it is not going very far.  Charley – this is for our children.  Maritsa – I was at first fearful to revive the spiritual customs but since 2012 we have renewed interest.  Charley - This is a correct path – who knows where it will take you.  Susan – In El Chile in Matagalps are women who tried to get weaving skills passed on, but they now weave on looms and can sell their cloth.  Maritsa – Samoza forbade cotton, weaving, fermented corn for our ceremonies, and celebration of the Goddess of corn – because the state wanted a monopoly on alcohol and the tax money.  Carlos – are they making it now?  Maritsa – very little.
Organization of women in the department of Masaya is Comisaria de la Mujer.

La Mariposa Spanish School, Eco-Hotel and Research Center

We took a tour of the Spanish School and went to the top of the hill where there is space for groups do to research.  If you walk, it is 40 minutes from the school to the research center.  At the research center, we saw a building made from rice husks / straw bales stuffed into chicken wire, then cement on the outside and inside.  During excavation for the building, they found clay pots and have built spaces inside to hold them.  The tables are made from a fallen tree.  Noel from Masaya helped with this design.

You can easily see the Masaya volcano from here.  The sulfur fumes limit the kinds of plants that grow around here.  Near the volcano live 500 people, 200 of them children – the air is so bad they really shouldn’t be living there.  There are volcanic rocks everywhere here.  There are five craters of the Masaya volcano.  The sulfur in the air is so strong that it dissolves metal including galvanized roofs, and locks (which may last only 3 or 4 months).  This eruption began in the 1700s and it’s still emitting lots of smoke – it’s in the rain water, so you can’t drink it.  It doesn’t often blow over to the research center.

The research center’s bamboo dorms hold up to 24 people.  The teachers have separate quarters.  There’s no internet, and the lights and shower are solar.  There are tanks above the showers.
They catch rainwater which goes into a big concrete box.  The outhouse holes are very deep – 20 meters – they don’t have an odor.

80% of the veggies and some of the fruit that is consumed at Mariposa is grown on-site.
Back down at the school, we see horses.  Most are rescued, but a few were born here including one baby who is only 2 months old and still nursing.  Guests ride the horses once per week.

Young Environmentalists - Jovenes Ambientalistas

There is a wildlife migration corridor from BOSAWAS to the coast and going south on the coast of RAAN which will be disrupted by either a canal or a rail line.
Jose Manzanares is the director.  We met with Braxis Alverez and German Areas.

Welcome, we are very willing to share information with you.  The youth and environment movement has been going on for 18years and we have two programs – the National Earth Fair and the list of 40 most endangered species.  June 5 is the National Day of the Environment.  We get private funds.  In the fair, we have talks by students of all ages and by environmentally friendly companies like CEFA, CICFA, USN, IUCN, International Conservation of Nature?  CIFCA is part of IUCN, who helped with the endangered species of Nicaragua book, the first of its type published in Central America.

The iguanas of Dario are endangered but not as bad as the ones in the book.

CICFA is giving talks on climate change and figuring out what to do with solid, dangerous waste.
This is like a club – we invite youth to come and we talk about nature and the environment.
This organization is not partisan.  We worked with the liberal government; they were not very interested in the environment, but were easier to access.  This current government has guard a da ramco (a bird), but they are weak in science – they lack thought of consequences.

The bird group has more access to funds to get a plane to Rio San Juan to plant and re-forest.  We sometimes give talks to them.

Last year, the fair was in La Porita in Chinandega, which is forested with precious wood and fruit trees, so the people would have something to eat.

There are many problems in the BOSAWAS – putting order in the territory.  The indigenous are not destroying BOSAWAS, they are trying to conserve it.  The Mayangnas live there but do not endanger it.   

Problems –
·         extracting precious wood – Managua gives permission without being careful
·         poverty has improved, but rural poor people are coming in with hopes of a better life
·         water, biodiversity, as well as wood.

·         Less than 290 people are administering BOSAWAS, which had been managed by Inafor and was just moved to under the President.

Charley – suggestion – in defense of the environment, with your help, we would like to get the word out that it is not good for outsiders to come to indigenous land right now.  The government needs time to do its job on the saneamiento.  It’s the outsiders that are causing the environmental problems.
Response – yes, the Mestizos are cutting wood and bring in cattle – even worse are the logging concessions.
In Costa Rica, certain woods cannot be cut, but it can be gotten from Nicaragua – it’s like a wood mafia.
It’s not important how many guards there are – it’s important what happens in Managua, giving the concessions.

Is INAFOR corrupt?  To talk about the government is complicated.  There are people that think this change could be positive, but others think the president will benefit its own businesses.

Charley – step 5 would bring order, but it is not being followed and seen through.  It would help stop the mafia of lumber.  One of the ways to stop the Mestizos is to reduce their poverty here on the Pacific side, or where they currently live.  Part of the problem is that the Indigenous Territorial Governments need training in budgeting and how to work with the national government.  Some Mestizos may know how to take care of the environment, but they are very poor and don’t know any other way to use the land.  Land brokers are a problem, for example the Tomas Lopez Lopez case.

German responded – it’s hard to change the situation.  I still think the problem is the concessions.  Twice an indigenous person has come to this office to ask for help, but he was violent, so we broke off relations.
Kathy – Mayangna Sauni As are burning houses.

German – We are open to helping, but this guy was swearing and very violent.  There is a special ombudsman for the environment that you might meet with.  We have a campaign with some media spots to put out the information about the red list of endangered species.  The magazine Vocero Environmentalista (Voice of Environment) attacks problems directly and they don’t soft pedal it – if the government needs to change, they say so.

Why not television spots telling the campesinos not to go to the Atlantic side?  That is difficult because they are desperate.  The bono productive (zero hunger program) is not getting to some places and people don’t have enough food.  Also, some must pay for emergencies or can’t feed the chickens what they are used to eating, so they die.

(Our impression of the Young Environmentalists is that they have their 2 – 3 projects and aren’t willing to listen to us about the problem, nor get involved with a public service announcement project.  It seemed to me like we were talking about apples and they were talking about oranges.)

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Margarita Antonio and David Kane

We went to Pollo Estrella because everything was closed on a Sunday afternoon.  (I think) Margarita is a journalist and Miskito indigenous person from Puerto Cabazas/Bilwi.  And (I think) that David worked in 1976-77 with Nicanet in 1985 in Washington DC and has been in Nicaragua for four years.  He has done work with the Ford Foundation Forestry and Natural Resources.

Shelly was joined by friends from her sister city of Samoto, a couple and their daughter.

We gave Margarita and David a brief summary of our trip so far including that the Mayangna Matumbak are hoping for funding and that we are hoping to meet with the Mayangna Sauni As people here in Managua.
Carlos – An overall theme is that all of the indigenous have issues with third parties selling their land.  There was the Arab man and other foreigners that are wealthy.  The Eco-Battalion is more trusted than the police.
We must educate people that these are indigenous lands -  through radio and other means.

Jazelle – Margarita knows her – says she can get court orders to cover xx numbers of families evicted.
Only some areas are teaching bilingual.  Maybe some areas can sell their own resources.

Susan – in Dario we have good health care for women – there is a health center but no medicine and not enough money for nurse salaries on the Atlantic side.   She told about the water instead of depoprevara.

Charlie talked about the overt racism between the two cultures.  Said the 1894 and 1905 treaties were there.  Five years ago the Council of Eldors was re-invigorated and re-created the Wihta Tara.  Hector created the Congress, they voted on the people, have 178 members in a Senate and House.  Congress is to meet April 20 – 23 to pass legislation.  Idea of a Central Bank  was presented by Jazelle’s father.
The Eco-Battalion and policed might not condone burning houses, but how else to get law 445 implemented?  They are frustrated.  The Nicaragua Government is not moving fast enough.  Also, autonomy / sovereignty SHOULD mean that they own the resources, can export or sell them DIRECTLY instead of through the Nicaragua Government, can collect taxes, etc.

Margarita – The big picture of the coast is the background defining the relationships between the coastal peoples and the Nicaragua government.  Land, health, education are issues.  In 1981 the land was not split into pieces.  This process today ignores the complimentary territories, which are still in negotiation.  They are supposed to have Indigenous Territorial Governments elected by their own traditions – what are their traditions?

No record of the 25% of the money that is supposed to be given to the Territorial Governments exists – as to how it is being spent by them.  Partly that is because they have no governmental experience or education in these matters.

There’s the issue of political parties, the Yatama and the Sandanistas.  In the most recent election, people rejected Yatama and voted for the Sandanistas, but really the parties win, not the people. 

The regional official institution, RAAN, is not against communal autonbomy – we aren’t making the regional government do its job.  People expected the Wihta Tara to make changes but they did not.

People expect to get a salary.  People expect to get meals and transportation – all of it is against our culture.  People fight for these positions because it gives them income.  But who represents us?

Key government positions have indigenous people for the first time in Nicaragua.  We have achieved great laws.    We have a right to our language and culture – this is huge progress.

There are five levels of government – National (in Managua), RAAN/S, Municipal, Territorial, and Community (clans, families).

At the Universities on the Atlantic side, people can study Law 445 and traditional medicine.

Assembly – approval of selected leaders, in community.  Communities are not equal at the territorial level.  There is a lack of accountability and political will to work for the people.

Drug dealing, new colonies, more than indigenous population.  They may attack with guns of machetes.  Saneamiento is the big issue – why do we have titles with no real will for the saneamiento?  We need to stop new entries.  Margarita interviewed the police chief – they drive out new invaders.  Here it is different, we don’t know about the procedure – maybe they have a valid title.  Corruption plays a part.
We need official sanctions against big land brokers.

There is a problem on the Honduran border – we traditionally crossed that border to plant crops, but we can’t cross any more.  The gold rush is a problem there, too.  We see huge timber trucks – who is authorizing this?  There is mahogany going out despite the ban.  Alba Forestal has a monopoly?  Communities may have authorized this.

In Espaniolina a budget is needed to cover a legal advisor.  Sauni As has one.  Mayangnas are different in defense of the BOSAWAS reserve – it is recognized, but they don’t care about the people (?)Mayangnas are clever.  Matumbak has a different experience, and Tuahka different yet because some Miskitos are included.

Education and health investment has become better, but it is never enough.

Nicaragua has a high rate of maternal deaths due to poverty and lack of transportation to the hospital.  In maternal hospitals there might not be food.  We just don’t have enough.  In Dario, the Casa Maternos give you free food for a week.  The intensive care unit in Bilwi is worse than a general room in Managua.  Historically, the coast is neglected, partly due to its “autonomy”.

There was an uprising in 1987 of the Moskitos, but since 1990, autonomy has disappeared.  The strength and unity of the tribes of the 1980s is not happening now, is not a common position.

The coast is a process and want things to happen faster.  We don’t have the water, forests, or gold that we had before.  Climate change, high influx of people, access to communication and education, different visions and attitudes exist now.  

In the past, Moskitia as a nation was not conquered because the tribes were strong and united.  But now Moskitia is silently invaded, horizontally, by vast numbers of poor people with different language and culture, who are becoming a majority.  On the Atlantic coast we are all threatened by all of the invaders.  When I traveled from Bilwi to Bonanza I felt like I was in a place that is not mine anymore.  The signs are all in Spanish, not Miskitu, for example.  The law of 1996 said that we can use our own language, but communities and services should use both – enforcing Moskitu is not uniform.  If media reflects society and we have less than one-sixth of the population of Bilwi Moskito, it is no wonder that the radio varies from 1% to 30% being broadcast in Moskitu – we are not defending our language and culture.  Books and events are more often in Moskitu.  Twenty two of twenty four Moravian churches use Moskitu, but on the street, people speak Spanish, especially the youth.  Jazelle is different because of her father.  We self-identify as Moskitu… One group is using bi-lingual education until secondary school.  Before 1894 education was in English because of the Moravian churches.  In the mid-1950s, Spanish was taught to the teachers – this is happening in Honduras as well.  Moskitu leaders complained, and had a campaign in 1981 for Moskitu and Mayangna bi-lingual education.  By 1990 they started building bilingual autonomous education systems.  (SAAR?) did not fund this and some teachers think that Spanish is better, and some parents don’t think that bilingual education is good.  It might be good to teach leadership and environmental classes in Moskitu and Mayangna.  There is a gender issue in leadership and in learning Spanish.

Who should pay for staff and medicine?  The health ministry pays the salary of health post nurses, but the salary is very small.  The Education ministry pays teachers, but the regional governments can also hire teachers, who may not be paid.

Where does the money from extracting resources go?  Each level of government – National, Regional, Municipal, and Territorial is supposed to get 25%, and supposed to use it for the benefit of that territory.  However, there is not a culture of demanding accountability or complaining.

Charley – Campesinos have guns and the Indians do not – this is a potential problem.  Margarita – people can’t hunt or tend crops because of that.  Kathy – This is true specially near Honduras and because of the drug traffickers.  Carlos – Drugs are more of a Moskito issue, where land is more of an issue for the Mayangna.  There were two young Mayangna shot in Espaniolina.

The Mayangna seemed to be under greater threat.  They are more united and their territories were demarcated first.  

The Moskitu have a more diverse point of view than the Mayangna.  The women are more willing to work together and are wanting unity.  Moskitu women started talking – conflict would be solved differently by women – we need to have our voices heard.  Only three women have been elected, and traditionally no women have been included.

Regarding Moskitia, the land is all indigenous land, but we also accepted the titles.
Where are the campesinos going to go?  The campesinos are racist against the indigenous.
What about public service announcements?  We did some, but I didn’t hear them.
Some community leaders are selling land and natural resources.
Political parties are succeeding in dividing us in many ways.
Press release?  Compare this government with previous governments but talk about what is not working, the community challenges.